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U.s., Russian Collaborators Devise Near-perfect Method To Identify Genes Across Species Lines

A new method can find a human gene if an analogous gene from any other life form is already known.

While other techniques already exist to find cross-species gene analogs, this method is far more accurate. So the new method – devised through the collaborative efforts of U.S. and Russian researchers working at the University of Southern California – is likely to find ready applications in biotechnology, evolutionary biology and medical research.

The researchers, two in Russia and one in the United States, describe the method in the Aug. 20 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

“Hunting for human genes is a massive, painstaking undertaking that typically takes years and costs tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars,” says co-author Pavel A. Pevzner, Ph.D., a professor of mathematics and computer science at USC. “With this method, we can find a human gene if an analogous gene from another species has been identified. The species doesn’t matter: mouse, chicken, frog. Anything alive can serve as a template to find human genes.”

Many cancer-causing genes already identified in mice and other laboratory animals are thought to have analogs that cause cancer in humans. “All of this animal research can now be translated far more quickly into human gene sequences, and ultimately, we hope, into treatments and cures.”

Pevzner and his Russian collaborators – Mikhail S. Gelfand, Ph.D., of the Institute of Protein Research at the Russian Academy, and Andrey A. Mironov, Ph.D., of the Laboratory of Mathematical Methods at the Russian National Center for Biotechnology – have devised a method that overcomes formidable obstacles.

In very simple life forms, such as bacteria, genes are written into the organism’s hereditary material as continuous strings of information, recording genetic information in the four-letter base-pair AGCT alphabet of DNA.

In man and other vertebrates, the situation is much less straightforward, even though exactly the same alphabet of letters is used. A human gene, consisting of a message roughly 2,000 letters long, is typically broken into submessages called “exons.” These exons are shuffled, seemingly at random, into a section of chromosomal DNA as many as a million letters long.

A typical human or mammalian gene can have 10 exons or more. Recently, scientists reported a gene written in 54 separate exons. Another, linked to breast cancer, has 27.

“This situation is comparable to a magazine article that begins on page one, continues on page 13, then takes up again on pages 43, 51, 53, 59, 70, 74, 80 and 91, with pages of advertising and other articles appearing in between,” Pevzner explains. “We don’t understand why these jumps occur or what purpose they serve. Thankfully, like a magazine, the exons stay in order. They don’t jump backward. You always read in the same direction.”

The jumps are inconsistent from species to species. An “article” in an insect edition of the genetic magazine will be printed differently than the same article appearing in a worm edition. “The pagination will be completely different,” Pevzner explains, “and it will not be consistent: the information that appears on a single page in the human edition may be broken up into two in the wheat version, or vice versa.”

The USC scientist continues, noting yet another complication: “The genes themselves, while related, are quite different. The mouse-edition gene is written in mouse language; the human-edition gene in human language. It’s a little like German and English, which are related languages: many words are identical or similar, but many others are not. Nevertheless, to find the analogous genes, we must be able to recognize these differently spelled words written on different pages as the same message.”

Even there, the complications do not end. If it were just a matter of picking out a known “magazine story,” whether in mouse-DNA language or human-DNA language, from intervening material that was obviously advertising, the problem would be far less difficult. Perversely, the “advertising” can mimic the message. Long sequences of “junk DNA,” as it’s sometimes called, may be identical to parts of the message but not be part of the gene. Such sequences are meant to be skipped when the message is read.

Earlier methods for deciding what is advertising and what is story depended on statistics. To continue the magazine analogy, “it is something like going through back issues of the magazine and finding that human-gene ‘stories’ are less like to contain phrases like ‘For Sale,’ telephone numbers, and the dollar sign,” Dr. Gelfand explains.

While better than random reconstruction, these statistical methods are inaccurate at best.

The method developed by Pevzner and his colleagues zeros in on the proper “pages” by making first a list of all pages that are potentially part of the “story” – all pages that seem to have sequences that are part of the message.

The software developed by the three researchers then automatically combines and recombines these pages into the set that makes the best fit. The method works best when a “target protein” is available to guide the search. All the stories in the genetic magazine are recipes for making proteins. If you have the protein, you know the way the recipe reads (though you don’t know where to find it in the maze of advertising).

The method’s accuracy with such guidance is always good, the scientists report, and often remarkable – 99% or 100% accurate.

The Proceedings paper contains a listing of trials of the method on nearly 100 different genes, 47 of them from mammals (mostly mice), 45 from other organisms, including bacteria.

For mammals, 40 of 47 reconstructions were perfect – 100% accurate. In six of the remaining cases, where the method did not give a perfect prediction, it came close, accurately predicting 94-97%.

Even the lone case in which the method seemed to fall down – predicting with 75% accuracy on the basis of mouse data – the failure was interesting. In this case, chicken data for the same gene were also available to use for predictions, and the prediction of the human gene from the chicken data was 100% accurate. “This is surprising, given that we think of humans as more closely related to mice than to chickens,” Pevzner notes.

Even when the starting point of the reconstruction was target material from organisms evolutionarily extremely different from humans – bacteria, yeasts and others – 25 of the reconstructions were 100% accurate.

“We believe our method will prove extremely useful to researchers, not just in biotechnology, but also evolutionary biology,” Pevzner says. “It will enable biologists to trace, with exceptional precision, exact degrees of difference between gene organization in different species. And it will help, we think, to establish evolutionary relationships between species.”

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Jason Review Of Doe Genome Program

Last year the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research invited an independent group of physicists and engineers (JASON group, run by Mitre Corporation) to review the technology, quality-control, and informatics components of the DOE Human Genome Program. The group released its first advisory report in January. Recommendations emphasize development of advanced technology; improvements in current technology; and establishment of a standardized, quantitative program for data-quality assessment.

A report summary by JASON member Steven Koonin (California Institute of Technology) and commentary were published in the January 2 issue of Science. A response by Phil Green (University of Washington) to specific points in the report was published in the February 20 issue of Science, and a more detailed commentary by Green is available on the Web.

The DOE Human Genome Program recently announced a Request for Applications for instrumentation research to develop substantial evolutionary improvements in current systems and novel revolutionary technologies for efficient genomic analyses.

National Qualification In Exercise, Health Studies And Personal Training

What can I do with this qualification?

Graduates of the National Qualification in Exercise, Health Studies and Personal Training are fully qualified fitness instructors and personal trainers and can work in the health fitness industry at home and abroad or in a self employed capacity as a personal trainer.

Successful completion allows graduates to obtain professional indemnity insurance cover to faciliate exercise prescription to members of the public.

Programme Overview

The National Qualification in Exercise, Health Studies and Personal Training will offer successful graduates the opportunity to prescribe safe and effective exercise to the general public in either group fitness situations or on an individual one-to-one personal training basis.

This qualification, which is delivered by the National College of Exercise and Health Studies (NCEHS), offers individuals the opportunity to learn the skills required to teach safe and effective exercise to the general public. Exercise prescription offered by NCEHS Health Fitness Instructors includes resistance training classes using the wide variety of weight training machines available in health clubs and fitness centres. Graduates also deliver group exercise to music classes, either in health clubs and fitness centres in an employed capacity, or in community centres, parish halls etc. as self employed individuals. They also have the opportunity to deliver one-to-one personal training as this excellent programme also includes the National Qualification in Personal Training.

As a result of the superb quality of instructional skills and internationally accepted qualifications, NCEHS Health Fitness Instructors can obtain a highly specified Professional Indemnity Insurance policy which is available exclusively to our graduates.

NCEHS graduates will find themselves immediately employable and in strong demand within the health fitness profession. Opportunities also exist for NCEHS qualified Health Fitness Instructors to work on board luxury cruise liners through our professional relationship with Steiner, the company responsible for staff placement in this area.

Entry Requirements

The National Qualification in Exercise, Health Studies and Personal Training is open to anybody with a strong interest in exercise and health fitness and the desire to pass their enthusiasm on to the general public as part of their day-to-day working routine as either a full time or part time health fitness instructor.

The course content includes anatomy and physiology, exercise to music, resistance training, diet and sports nutrition, first aid, injury prevention and other areas of interest. The content is delivered to facilitate adult learners of mixed ability.

Synoptic Syllabus

The National Qualification in Exercise, Health Studies and Personal Training covers all relevant areas including:

# Functional Anatomy & Kinesiology, Basic Exercise Physiology
# Concepts and Components of Fitness
# Exercise Principals & Energy Systems
# Lesson Planning & Class Structure
# Muscular Actions & Exercise Analysis
# Resistance & Flexibility Training
# Exercise to Music, Choreography & Music Appreciation
# NCEHS Key Elements to successful Instruction and Personal Training
# Safety and Contra – Indicated exercise
# Personal Training & Instructional Teaching Skills
# Diet & Sports Nutrition
# Injury Prevention in exercise
# Introduction to Sports Massage
# Business Aspects
# Code of Ethics

Tutors

All National College of Exercise and Health Studies tutors are expert in their chosen field with some having represented Ireland at international level in health fitness competition.

All senior tutors have many years of experience working in the health fitness profession and, having obtained a H. Dip. in Education have learned the skills required to deliver complex information to learners of mixed ability.

All tutors have dedicated areas of speciality to enhance the learning experience for NCEHS students.

CPD

NCEHS graduates have a responsibility to ensure that the exercise prescription which they offer the public is current, safe and effective. In order to achieve this goal graduates must participate in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) which ensures that they are always operating within ‘best practice’ standards.

CPD can be achieved through attendance at health fitness conventions and conferences or through the participation in advanced educational programmes which bring graduates up to date with changes.

Ismb-95 Addresses Computational Issues

Some 270 delegates attended the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) held in Cambridge, England, on July 16-19, 1995. The conference brought together scientists who are using advanced computational methods to address problems in molecular biology. These methods include data modeling, machine learning, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, robotics, combinatorial and stochastic optimization, adaptive computing, string and graph algorithms, linguistic methods, and parallel computer technologies.

The conference was preceded by 8 introductory and advanced tutorials attended by 187 delegates. The best-attended tutorials were (1) Protein Structure Prediction and (2) Statistical Foundations of Multiple Sequence Alignments and Structure Prediction.

The conference consisted of 8 sessions and 26 oral papers on key bioinformatics issues: protein structure and docking, sequence alignment, protein sequence and structure, understanding sequence function, RNA sequence and structure, genome information systems, gene finding and gene structure, and database searching. Topics of particular interest included methods for automatically identifying different structural and functional domains within protein structures and the use of advanced statistical methods (e.g., hidden Markov models and stochastic context-free grammars) for identifying complex protein sequence patterns and sequence relationships. Recurring themes were (1) genome-information integration and presentation and (2) methods for rapidly searching DNA and protein sequence and structure databases for related molecules.

Throughout the meeting, two general trends could be discerned: (1) the need to compare new approaches to existing methods, with the associated complexities of selecting appropriate data sets, and (2) the desire to make predictions of biological function that could be validated properly. This raises the general question of how to represent biological function in molecular biology databases. More complete databases of biological processes and pathways that can be linked to sequence and structure data sets are clearly needed.

A new topic was the search for efficient and accurate methods of finding the best fit between macromolecular structures (docking), with both protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions being considered. Several papers and a tutorial covered the challenges of protein structure prediction and the refinements to methods for threading sequences through known protein structures. Applications for machine-learning methods (e.g., neural networks, hidden Markov models, and genetic algorithms) were well represented, and a new approach based on a simulation of the immune system was presented. RNA structure prediction was addressed by several different techniques, including the use of linguistics and graph theory.

Conference proceedings (ISBN 0-929280-83-0), including 26 oral papers and 22 posters featured in the formal poster session, can be obtained directly from AAAI/MIT Press (info@). Proceedings of ISMB-93 (ISBN 0-929280-47-4) and ISMB-94 (ISBN 0-929280-68-7) are also available from AAAI. ISMB-96, being organized by David States, will be held June 12-15 at Washington University, St. Louis.

Teaching Math to Students Having Difficulty

Math fear has been there in kids for ages. Due to which many students struggle in performing well in this subject. Teachers can play a major role in helping students to get rid of this fear. They can help students to break-down difficult concepts and project math as interesting and exciting topic for kids.

There are plenty of creative ways for converting math to a fun learning subject. Humor while teaching also plays an important role; it serves as good mnemonic that leads to retention of material. Therefore, a teacher must be aware of repertoire of techniques while coaching students.

Math fear can be tackled by teacher with the help of practical strategies such as…

Clearing Concepts In Math Using Fun Games

Kids do love learning but when it comes along with fun, it becomes more interesting. Teachers should encourage students to use math while playing. Choosing games and activities that target on a very specific math skill really helps. Some of the recommended math games are – Sudoku, Flash card multiplication game, Math drill game etc. Dice and playing cards are great tools for teaching addition, greater than/less than, multiplication, number sense, place value etc to students. Just playing games isn’t the solution; games must be followed by explanations of the underlying ideas, connections and patterns.

Teach By Real Life Examples

A teacher must use lots of real life examples to teach. Kids are unable to connect with math as they don’t understand how it helps them in real life. A method of inducting math in life could be by telling them to use math while shopping or playing. For example, kids can bring decimal and percentage lessons in use while shopping. Small children can be taught by using instances of things that fascinate them. For example, simple addition and subtraction can be taught by a teacher by posing sample problem like this – “There were six cupcakes, three large and three small. One pair was iced in chocolate and decorated in sprinkles. Another pair had sprinkles but was iced in vanilla. The third pair had vanilla icing only. Out of these, Amy ate a pair iced in chocolate. Now, how many left?” It will not only be catchy for them but also will make them learn.

Mathematics and Its Practical Application

Some students are able to grasp mathematical concepts just by using textbooks and sample problems, whereas other students might need more than that. Teachers must choose activities and learning strategies that not only make sense to the children but also aim at simplifying difficulties. Active engagement strategies in mathematics can be used for motivating struggling learners and to challenge advanced learners.

Using these strategies teachers will discover ways how math could be made fun and easy for students and how they can easily master them.

Ufo’s – Fact Or Fiction?

One subject that fascinates millions of people worldwide is do UFO’s exist? There are comelling facts that point to their existence and here we will look at evidence in more detail.

Although a well-known subject for literally thousands of years (indeed mentioned in the earliest known writings) the subject of UFO’s continue to fascinate us.

The S.E.T.I. project, countless private investigators, national organizations in avariety of countries are devoted to researching the existence of UFO’s and the ET phenomena all give a certain credence to the existence of such objects and entities.

The physics of getting from point ?A? which is even a few thousand light years away to point ?B? has been considered even by the greats such as Einstein and Oppenheimer.

Interestingly enough, their theories and now mathematical substantiation would imply that space travel is possible, but indeed, not too practical. So, worm holes, time warps and other devices have been used to explain the possibility further.

The subject of countless films and books and needless to say, a whole industry, has sprung up, making the subject economically attractive.

The ancients however were quite used to the phenomena and knew exactly what it was, and perhaps, still is.

The ancient Indians were quite used to flying by non-mechanical methods on carpets, or machines. The Pushpa mentioned in the Sacred Writing of the Mahabharata (India?s timeless epic) was used to fly all over India and other places.

Indeed, the Rama?s journey back from Sri Lanka after a war was described in detail from the air, and no less than it seems about 5,000 meters!

The Arabian Nights, another classic and perhaps much more than just fables and stories, mentions non-mechanical flight on carpets and other objects.

Distances are transversed at the speed of light (thought), with entities that appear as people, but not just really.

Some are huge and terrifying, some are smaller and beautiful. These are the race of Jinn, or Geniis.

Evidence of UFO?s

To apply today?s UFO phenomena to some ETs from somewhere is easy enough, but also, the quotable phenomena of lights in the sky, abduction of people, livestock mutilation, crop circles, and objects appearing and disappearing from nowhere are mentioned time and again in stories of the Genii.

These are not new ideas either. In the stories of Solomon, he too moves about all over Arabia (how did he do that?), gains control over the Jinn (Geniis) by magical means, confines the really evil ones to small bottles stopped with his Seal (which today is wrongly called the Star of David). The work of the Geniis can be easily attributed to the phenomena of the UFO when looked at in that light.

These ?stories? from the Bible, the Koran. Mahabharata, Avesta (ancient Zoroastrian ? Persian Sacred Writings), Egyptian and Ancient Chinese texts, could be just ?so much smoke?. Logically however, where there is so much smoke, there had to be fire. Indeed there are so many stories, having been heard by, and in so many ages and tongues, that some of it must be true.

The Genii assume any shape and they need or wish to. They fly both visibly and invisibly. The abduct, have relations, heal and kill people. They are sometimes beneficial and sometimes very malicious, especially the ones of the air (called Ifrits) and appear to delight in confounding human beings. They can be religious (some were Jews, some were Muslims), or purposefully evil, and akin to demons.

All of these activities, when looked at in an objective way, could be attributed to the UFO and ET themes.

The Christian Church, over the Middle Ages, and all the way through to the Victorian age, had a great deal to do with suppressing this kind of knowledge. Today, we are free to go back and examine our pasts, and with it, perhaps, the Genii too are liberated once more to contribute, react, and continue to confound the human race.

Aliens A Big Concern

People usually believe in a whole variety of things because it delivers them some sort of feeling of personality or ease and comfort.

Is there lifestyle out there? Are we alone? How did we get here?

These are the big concerns. For what it is value, I believe there are big hits developing history. The essentially unique effect from each big beat would generate many galaxies (I know, a contradiction in terms). The only popular element would be that each began from a rush of power. In our situation, some of that power was changed to topic, and we are the effect. Definitely there is no explanation why the power could not have been become another sensation that our expressions and our perspective cannot recognize. This may perhaps be a kind that is way off the range of our electro-magnetic array, or using a different array permanently.

Should such galaxies are available we could not view them as our feelings and devices are updated to our own whole world and not to an unfamiliar one. An example of the issue of creating the living of these aliens is this: what if the aliens did not have the element of place in their instrument kit? In other phrases they didn’t are available as bodily organizations at all? You may question therefore that perhaps they are designed up of protons, or power waves? No, even these phenomena would take up some place, and my aliens have no place in which to provide anything. Of course it is difficult to explain how they would are available, but perhaps an example would be the best element. Just think about imagined and, for a small, please overlook that imagined ocean themselves take up place. Perhaps our aliens are merely designed up of opinions or thoughts that take around us but have no bodily kind or a bodily house. These opinions will merely are available around us. The issue is that I have already run into issue with expressions. The phrase “around” advises place and as I said previously, a imagined in our whole world requires up some place. You see, aliens probably are available, but we cannot history them nor, with the disadvantages of our expressions, we cannot explain them. A great example of decreasing into the entice of our own expressions is the phrase “Aliens from external space”. The example I available would not operate, as the phrases “from”, “outer” and “space” would not apply! As we are restricted by expressions, all we have is our thoughts.

Abusive Debt Collectors Don?t Care What Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Says

Debt collectors have strict regulations as to how they can and cannot collect a debt. Regulations are set in place to protect not only consumers but to discourage abusive collection practices that can negatively affect those collection agencies that are abiding by these regulations. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act itself has some ambiguous areas that are intentionally left this way to protect such a wide array of violations. There is not one formula that fits for every violation.

Ex Debt Collector ?Andrew? said that when he was first hired by the debt collection agency where he worked, the employees had to memorize the FDCPA regulations so they could be certified. But after certification day, they were told that anything goes. The collector could say anything to unsuspecting consumers that would bring money in the door. They were told the agency would make so much money that an occasional lawsuit for FDCPA violations would be peanuts to them in the grand scheme of things.

The collectors were pumped up. They were told to have no sympathy and let no one escape their debt. Collectors were cheered when they brought a woman to tears. Often times a collector would signal others to listen in as they ripped into a crying debtor, purely for entertainment value of course. Threats of arrest and jail were often made.

Abusive debt collectors will use any means necessary to ensure that payment is made. Sometimes they may demand that a payment is made immediately otherwise they may need to go to the next step. These ambiguous statements are used to create fear and a sense of uncertainty that only fuels this abusive cycle.

Many debtors can sense that there may be something askew, whether it is a statement that is being made which is causing concern, or actions that are taken. Unfortunately, not many people are familiar with the protections that the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act has in place. For this reason the only way many people know how to get these debt collectors off one?s back is to ignore the calls or give in to their demands. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act helps consumers punish these abusive debt collectors for their actions and stop the abuse.

Norman Taylor & Associates are consumer advocates who know when consumers? rights are being violated and what can be done to stop abusive debt collectors. Helping consumers since 1987, they have handled over 6,000 consumer cases. The best possible support when dealing with debt collector abuse is the assistance and advice of an attorney who has a solid understanding of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and the knowledge of how to put an end to these abusive debt collection practices. Norman Taylor & Associates may be contacted at 1-800-764-7182.

About Norman Taylor & Associates – Consumer Advocates

Norman F. Taylor and Associates have been assisting consumers since 1987. At Norman Taylor & Associates, the goal is to provide clients with the highest quality of legal representation. The firm and its associates are experts in both the debt collection laws ? the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) and the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). They can provide you the help you need to end debt collection harassment and bring you peace of mind. They represent consumers all over the state of California. With a twenty two year history of successful cases, Norman Taylor & Associates has established their reputation as a firm of consumer advocates that get the job done.

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: Billionaires Get Away With Debt, But Not Consumers

It?s tough to watch Wall Street weasel out of the billions of dollars of damage they caused our economy, while the consumer gets harassed for a debt of $500. Wall Street gets off scot-free, but there is no pardoning the consumer of credit card debt, and for this reason, consumers should educate themselves on the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.

The financial world seems upside down at the moment and it is only going to get worse as the impact of Wall Street trickles down to affect families, young people, single parents and older Americans on fixed incomes. Many consumers are already struggling to make ends meet, and now many will face getting laid off because their company has to cut back on jobs. The level or rising debt concerns many economists, and as debt goes into default collection agencies get very busy with their calling and writing campaigns to collect that debt.

If a debt collector hasn?t come your way, there is a good chance you or someone you know will be dealing with debt collectors soon. Many consumers do not know what is considered fair debt collection practice. Unscrupulous debt collection agencies may choose to use any means necessary to get the debtor to pay. Many debtors feel defenseless and that they are in someway deserving of debt collection abuse. Fortunately, debt collection laws set guidelines on fair debt collection practices. Violations can vary from the very obnoxious harassing phone call to very subtle and not necessarily obvious to anyone unless they were aware of the law designed to protect debtors from such treatment.

Consumers should know the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act was created to protect them from abusive debt collectors. Debt collectors may also violate the rights of persons who aren?t even debtors but are simply relatives to the debtor, or know the debtor. If the abuses cross the line then consumers should take action.

The attorneys of Norman Taylor & Associates have been consumer advocates for over 22 years, helping over 6,000 consumers. The best ally in this scenario is a qualified experienced consumer advocate who knows your rights. Debt collection abuse is a violation of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. These vicious debt collectors will only be stopped if enough victims stand up, report the abuse and let the attorneys shut them down. Get an attorney to stop them.

About Us

Norman F. Taylor and Associates have been assisting consumers since 1987. At Norman Taylor & Associates, the goal is to provide clients with the highest quality of legal representation. The firm and its associates are experts in both the debt collection laws ? the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) and the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). They can provide you the help you need to end debt collection harassment and bring you peace of mind. They represent consumers in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura and Santa Barbara counties. With a twenty two year history of successful cases, Norman Taylor & Associates has established their reputation as a firm of consumer advocates that get the job done.

Top Tricks to Invest in an Astronomy Telescope

The choice of astronomy telescopes depends upon the time you will devote to the observation, which site you have access to, the ease of use and control and, as always, your budget. Some positive aspects and negatives for some different astronomy telescope are discussed here depending upon their designs.

1. A refracting astronomical telescope makes use of two lenses. The lens in the front of the telescope, called the objective lens, produces an upside-down image of the object. The lens near the eye, called the eye lens, acts as an ordinary magnifying glass to magnify that upside-down image. Naturally, each of these two elements of the telescope could be made up of several lenses, to combat certain inherent limitations, or aberrations.

Advantages

Standard-quality achromatic or apochromatic refractors have some advantages over other telescope designs. Firstly, refractors, by default, bear a entirely clear aperture. There is no central obstruction that leads light to be distributed from brighter to darker areas. So, the visitor can experience a better contrast in refractors. In these telescopes refractors often are adduced as the premier instruments for a planetary and double star observation.

Low maintenance is the second advantage of refractors as lenses do not need recoating like mirrors do. Furthermore, the optical tube assembly of a refractor generally does not depend upon collimation. Lens is placed into the tube and usually does not get misaligned, unless it is dag up to some major trauma.

Disadvantages

As the refractor is a closed-tube assembly, it may demand a extended amount of time to cool to ambient temperature. Presently used thin-walled aluminum tubes have decreased this period significantly, but cool-down time still should be accept into account.

2. Newtonian reflecting telescopes consists of two mirrors – a large primary mirror at the bottom of the tube and a small, flat secondary mirror near the top of the tube. Front- lights arrive into the tube, fall on the primary mirror, get reflected to the secondary mirror, and then it is mirrored again into the eyepiece.

Advantages

These reflecting telescopes does not ached any chromatic aberration. Included mirrors bear only one optical surface, whereas an apochromatic lens has between four and eight causing it less expensive to develop.

Disadvantages

Secondary mirror forms what is named a “central obstruction” which results in unnatural distribution of light and loss of contrast in the image. In case to resolve this problem, a few manufacturers have prepared so- called planetary Newtonians, having smaller central obstructions (some as small as 16% of the aperture).

Important things to keep in mind when investing a telescope :

a. Know everything you can about telescopes for instance manufacturers’ ads, catalogs, and especially read telescope reviews with customer score on a particular product. The Astronomy magazine will be a useful resource for both advertise and telescope reviews.

b. If a telescope is included with low- quality, high- power eyepiece, high (albeit empty) magnifications can be attained. So, it is meaningless to claim 500x magnification for telescopes. To make change of the magnification of a telescope, you need to change the eyepiece.

c. If you are serious about buying a telescope, consult with your nearest astronomy club where you can get all the assistance on understanding all feature of a particular.

d. General review says that the bigger the telescope, the better to get view. But, if you need often use of it, then choose smaller one as it is easy to set up a small refractor on a standard tripod rather than a large Newtonian reflector on a heavy mount.

And finally, always remember: a telescope is a useful tool- but only if you know what to perform with it !